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Edward Bernays

Crystallizing Public Opinion

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    in order to create and crystallize the impression
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    in analyzing the restaurant service of a prominent hotel, he discovers that its menu is built on the desires of the average eater and that a large group of people with children desire special foods for them. He may then advise his client to institute a children’s diet service.
    This was done specifically with the Waldorf Astoria Hotel, which instituted special menus for children.
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    He found that the chief cause for lack of interest in New York was the belief that New York was “cold and inhospitable.”
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    He talked to visitors. He queried men and women who represented groups,
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    The original technique was the issuance of treatises, historically correct and ethnologically accurate. Their facts were for the large part ignored. The public relations counsel, called in on the case of Romania, advised them to make these studies into interesting stories of news value. The public read these stories with avidity and Romania became part of America’s popular knowledge with consequent valuable results for Romania.
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    Romania wanted to plead its case before the American people. It wanted to tell Americans that it was an ancient and established country.
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    Somebody described this campaign, once it had achieved recognition for the Baltic republic, as the campaign of “advertising a nation to freedom.”
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    Little by little and phase by phase, the public, the press and Government officials acquired a knowledge of the customs, the character and the problems of Lithuania, the small Baltic nation that was seeking freedom.
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    Newspaper advertising was bought and paid for
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    All the avenues of approach to the public were utilized to capitalize the public interest and bring public action.
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    series of events which would carry with them the desired implications were planned and executed
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    He reflected to those communities whose crystallized opinion would be helpful in guiding other opinions, facts which gave them basis for conclusions favorable to Lithuania.
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    To the senators, he gave facts about Lithuania which would give them basis for favorable action. To the members of the House of Representatives he did
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    He told the “sporting fan” about Lithuanian sports and told American women about Lithuanian clothes.
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    problem of Lithuania from its remote and recent history and ethnic origins to its present-day marriage customs and its popular recreations. He divided his material into its various categories, based primarily on the public to which it would probably make its appeal.
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    an exhaustive study made of every conceivable aspect of the prob
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    The public relations counsel who was retained to direct this work recognized that the first problem to be solved was America’s indifference to and ignorance about Lithuania and its desires.
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    The question was how to arouse popular and official interest in Lithuania’s aspirations.
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    Lithuania was of considerable political importance in the reorganization of Europe, but it was a country little known or understood by the American public.
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    Lithuania’s campaign in this country in 1919, for popular sympathy and official recognition
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