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Philip Gucker

Essential English Grammar

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    The word there in such a construction is called an expletive (something that fills out the sentence
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    Declaratave, Interrogative, Imperative, and Exclamatory Sentences1
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    stated or declared something
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    is the best teacher
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    The possibility of a voyage to the moon
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    have become very important in the U.N.
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    for weak hitting
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    or emphasis or variety, we put the predicate first
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    Draw a single line under any word that belongs with the subjec
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    However, when the appositive is simple and very closely related to its governing word, no punctuation is used:
    My friend Bob has a new car.
    We all went to see it.
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    Dashes may be used when the appositive phrase is long, or is separated from its governing word:
    Only one passenger in the entire bus load—a tall, pale gentleman in clerical garments—seemed unperturbed by the incident
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    Actually these constructions are similar in one respect: they are the equivalent of phrases with the preposition of. Compare: the hat of the woman, the command of the sergeant, the pursuers of Drake, a delay of an hour, etc. That is the test you should use when you put an s at the end of a word, to determine whether the sense is plural or possessive ‘—or both.
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    Measure:
    an hour’s delay, a day’s journey, a week’s vacation
    Miscellaneous:
    yesterday’s newspaper, duty’s call, for pity’s sake
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    The name of a particular person, place, or thing is called a proper noun. The first letter of such a word is capitalized.
    Capitalize people’s names, names of political and geographical places, names of particular buildings or streets or events, languages, nationalities, or religions. The list of illustrations will help you to distinguish between the particular and the general:
    North America
    a large continent
    Hyde Park High School
    in high school
    Wagner College
    a college graduate
    St. Luke’s Hospital
    in the hospital
    the Middle West
    traveling west
    the Far East
    east of the river
    Irishman
    journalist
    American Indians
    natives
    The President addressed Congress
    the president of my club
    Roman Catholic
    becoming a priest
    Capitalize references to the Deity and the Bible: God, Old Testament; but the Greek gods, sacred books of the Hindus.
    Capitalize names of planets or constellations, but not the sun, the moon, or the earth: Mars, Saturn, the Big Dipper, stars, planets.
    Capitalize days of the week and names of months, but not names of seasons: Wednesday, December, summer, winter
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    Another distinction is that nouns can be modified by articles and adjectives: my boy, the junior college, an easy life. Pronouns generally do not take such modifiers.
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    it is never a verb. However, it is derived from a verb, and it looks something like a verb.
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    The argument that he presented was not convincing. (adjective clause)
    His final argument, that women are more inclined to violence, was not convincing. (noun clause)
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    Do you need George any more than (you do) me?
    Do you need George any more than I (do) ?
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    The difference is in the degrees of formality: Drive slow. Advance slowly.
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    Further-furthest can be used for all purposes; farther-farthest only for physical distance: “It’s just a few steps further (or farther),” “We have no further recommendations.”
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